«We need to look into the past in order to understand the present and foresee the future».
N. Nazarbayev
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When it comes to Mongol invasion of Kazakhstan lands, the first thing which comes to our minds is heroic defence of Otrar, there is a lot of written information and even feature film about Otrar. Nevertheless, battles took place not only in the environs of this city, but unfortunately there is not much information about other battles. Reference: At the time of Genghis khan’s troops’ invasion, there were several states in the territory of modern Kazakhstan: Cuman-Kipchak confederation in northern steppes, the state of Turk-Karluk (under Kara-Khitan Khanate) in northern part of Semirechye, Kangly located in the area of Talas and Chu, also there were Kara-Khitans’s states and Naymans who invaded a part of their territory. Test of strength For the first time Mongols appeared in Semirechye in 1211 under command of Khubilay-noyan.


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