History of formation and development of ulus system of Mongol Empire on the territory of Eastern Dasht-i Kipchak is closely connected with the issue of terms Ak-Orda and Kok-Orda – the names of the two main ulus units in the structure of Juchid state, formed after Juchid’s death.
During war years Kazakhstan became home front and center for the reception and location of evacuated enterprises. 220 factories, plants, production facilities and workshops arrived and were put into operation. Production of weapons and ammunition for the front was organized in difficult war-time conditions.
Asan Kaygy was born in the second half of the 14th century in the bank of the Volga River. He was a statesman, poet, narrator and philosopher. The period of Asan Kaygy’s life coincided with the time of creation of Kazakh statehood.
Petroglyphs of Kazakhstan — magnificent monuments of primitive and medieval art. Specifics of the Kazakhstan relief, feature of breeds of the stone composing a massif caused a wide dissemination of petroglyphs. In the territory of Kazakhstan there is an archaeological complex of the Tamgaly well-known for the whole world. In 2004 it was included into the list of the World cultural heritage of UNESCO. The Tamgaly — a monument which is in 170 km to the northwest from Almaty, in mountains Anyrakay where found the slots fine rock paintings which indeed are read by a sacral place for petroglyphs of Kazakhstan. Here it is possible to meet about 5000 petroglyphs which conceal in themselves interesting riddles of last time. The composition of petroglyphs of the Tamgaly is unique, and analogs him aren’t present in a pattern anywhere. The complex near the village of Karabastau of the Zhambylsky region of Almaty region is located. In 2003 on this place the State museum open-air is created.
Ancient Turks had a peculiar idea about the origin of life, society, man and nature. From their perspective, the world appeared in a strict chronological order. At the beginning the blue sky and brown earth had been created. Later human sons had arisen between them. Finally, Kagans had towered over the human community. At the same time the blue sky was a symbol of Tengri, supreme creative force, who managed the destinies of particular person, nations, states and Kagans.
The Kazakh famine is the least well understood part of the complex of famines that affected the USSR in the early 1930s.
Last year I read books of Koyshagyr Salgarauly «Ancient Turks», «Turks in the Middle Ages», «Oriental Turks»[ this year I read a movie novel «Myngul, Mongol and three Genghizes» and also «Khan Mode».
Scientist and academician Alkey Margulan in his book «World of Kazakhs» analyzes history of native land, its culture and ethnographic heritage. The first part of the book is titled «Petroglyphs with wolf totem." In places where culture exists at present, it will exist in future. Prehistory of nations includes inscriptions on stones and petroglyphs. Alkey Margulan starts his book with presenting these data. Petroglyph is an archaeological, scientific term. In translation from Greek, petra means stone, and glyphein (glyph) means «to carve», humans have been using stone from prehistoric period; it has been an the most indispensable object for life, which is proved by results of archaeological excavations. Petroglyphs animate stones, their importance lies in the fact that images of kulans, aurochs, hunters and shamans, which had been portrayed on stones, give precious information about people of that epoch.
Contradictory and versatile history of people from Western Siberia and Altay region, which has become the center of Eurasia, lasts for many years. Sources of these regions’ history come from the Stone Age. With the help of conscious labor, people made transition to developed Bronze Age. From II thousand years B.C. up to the period of Russian colonization in the 15th century, this area had been settled by people Andropov culture, Saka, Wusun and Huns, they had been leading a nomadic life and had been engaged in cattle rising.