Portal «History of Kazakhstan» for the first time publishes unique archive documents on divisions, formed in Akmolinsk city and participated in the major fights of the Great Patriotic War. The documents were removed from secret list and brought from the Central Archive of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation (Podolsk city).
Abstract: Different regions of Russia were main source of the Catholic population in Kazakhstan. There were two rites in Russian Catholicism: Latin-for the Poles and Germans and the Eastern — for Slavic Catholics. This article is devoted to the German and Polish Catholics, who formed the basis of the Catholic Church in Kazakhstan. As a result of the political process, accompanied by forced deportation of nations in the 1930’s-1940’s, Kazakhstan has become a place of concentration of German and Polish population and a center of religious life of Catholics in the USSR. The status of the Catholic faithful was influenced not only by the anti-religious policy of the Soviet state. Catholicism in the Soviet Union was subjected to greater pressure and repression than other faiths, as it was the religion of the nations, whose historical roots were in the countries, who fought against the Soviet Union, as well as because of the tough anti-communist attitude of the Pope. The article describes the difficulties and peculiarities of the religious life of Catholics during the period of «catacomb church» from 1940’s to 1980’s; besides it shows the role of priests and «Eucharistic» women in the preservation of faith.
Alexander Goryachev, famous Almaty archeologist, discovered a unique construction which reaches age of more than three thousand years at the bottom of a mountainous plateau Assy. Presumably, that temple is the most ancient among those which had been previously found on the territory of our country.
The concept "women’s movement" at different historical stages had ambiguous interpretation. At the end of 19th-the beginning of the 20th centuries this term was used in wide and narrow sense. In the broadest sense it was considered as involvement of women in liberation movement, in the narrow — as self-organization in the unions and societies for the purpose of achievement of the equal civil and political rights with men.
Organized women’s movement takes origin in Western Europe at the end of 18th — at the beginning of the 19th centuries under the influence of the liberal and democratic moods which enveloped the most progressive sectors of society. The ideological inspirer of women’s movement in Europe was French writer Olympia De Gouges who wrote "Declaration of the rights of the woman and citizen" in 1791. She demanded to include women (femmes) in category of full citizens along with men. Since that time Olympia’s followers began to be called "feminists', and movement for woman equality in all areas of public and social life called "feminism".
The history of Ukraine is a millennial history of continuous struggle for its independence and freedom. Unlike European countries, this nation had gone the thorny path from Kievan Rus to Ukraine. For the last 500 years we not only had to prove our statehood and defend independence of our territory, freedom of our religion and culture at large, but also defend the right of our language, which had been subjected to non-recognition and eradication on hundreds of occasions. In the twentieth century these perturbations reached its peak and people got subjected to hardest trials in world wars and repressions in their own homes.
According to experts, free economic zones (FEZ) are the part of the national economic space, where special incentives scheme is used, which is not applied in other parts of the country. Consequently, FEZ is the isolated geographic area to different extents. However, there are other definitions of this term. For example, it is mentioned in “Modern history of Kazakhstan” that “free economic zone is a limited area with a special legal status in relation to the rest of territory and favorable economic conditions for domestic and foreign entrepreneurs”.
Foreign policy of Kazakhstan is the part of state policy which aims at the strengthening of the sovereignty, the guaranteeing of the national and international security and the territorial integrity.
The Head of the Republic Nursultan Nazarbayev places emphasis on educating the youth in the
spirit of patriotism, as it is impossible to join the ranks of 30 most
developed countries in the world without patriots having immense love for their
In the second half of XIX century, the accession
process was completed by the violent capture, the contest and administrative
subordination of Kazakhstan by the Russian Empire