Ambitious goals of fundamental update of the concept of origin and development of the state and society in Kazakhstan are set for historical science of Kazakhstan for the coming years. Significant social-economic advancements achieved by the people of Kazakhstan headed by its President, the Leader of Nation N.A.Nazarbayev show the advantage of natural unity of the government with people to achieve present and prospect strategic objectives during the years of sovereignty.
Kazakhstan is moving along the road of world democratic trends and traditions. Party system of the country has passed short but dynamic way of establishment saturated with diverse transformations, while the parties have left aside all the stages of their initial level of the development.
On the eve of the Day of memory of victims of political persecution, offer you information about the tragic fate of several such teachers.
Peaceful opening of vast lands behind Ural by Ukrainians started in the end of the 19th century; with time, those regions started to play an important role in development of Kazakh nation’s economy and received an impetus to acculturation. The process of resettlement of Ukrainian farmers to Northern Kazakhstan resumed in the twenties of the 20th century.
The main object of research of Lev Nikolayevich Gumilev was history of the nomadic people of the Great steppe. Deeply studying history and culture of the nomadic people, L. Gumilyov had huge respect and sympathy for the people of Eurasia. For this reason his scientific work "Ancient Turkic Peoples" begins with words: "I devote this book to our brothers — the Turkic people of the Soviet Union". Marking huge value ancient Turk in the history of mankind, the scientist with a big regret states that "… the history of these people is still not written. It was explained in passing and in abbreviated form…"
In this regard, L. Gumilyov’s role and scientific contribution in study of socio-political and ethnic history, tradition of statehood and the power, culture of the Turkic people is huge. It is important for us that one of receivers of Turkic heritage is also the Kazakh people.
Research of intellectual elite of Kazakhstan is topical to use because our country faces with a task of upgrade of society, first of all upgrade of institutes, values and culture. To solve this task taking into account experience of the East Asian countries and according to the estimates of the Russian scientists, it takes thirty-forty years at least. Thus, the elite possessing some qualities capable to support a platform concerning the main national values and the purposes is necessary.
30’s of the 20th century brought Kazakhstan and all Soviet Union a loss. It was mass cleaning among the intellectuals, administrative elite of the country and military. Elite was struck step by step during the Stalin’s times. In Kazakhstan the elite interlayer was destroyed almost completely.
A famous British researcher George Orwell describing totalitarianism noted its main peculiarity: "Totalitarianism encroached on freedom of thought in such a way that it could not have been imagined before... it is dictated what exactly to think; an ideology is embraced which must be accepted by the personality, they strive to manage his or her emotions and impose behavior forms on him or her... At least a totalitarian state does its utmost to control thoughts and feelings of its subjects so efficient that it controls their actions...". Just the control of actions, freedom of thought and feelings of "homo soveticus" became the main task of repression mechanisms of the Soviet state.
We know the price and significance of the Great Victory, we are proud of it and revere veterans’ services to the Motherland and future generations. This year Kazakhstan just like many other states celebrates the 70th anniversary of the Great Victory over fascism. President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan Abishevich Nazarbayev himself started a series of celebration events: on the eve of 2015 akims of all regions congratulated veterans in behalf of the President of the country. From time to time in Kazakhstan one can hear an opinion that our country had no concern with the past war; there were not battles in our territory anyway. Having organized the event, the head of state made it clear how we should take the feat of our fathers and grandfathers who left for the front in those fatal forties in order to fight for our future, for native Kazakhstan.
When it comes to Mongol invasion of Kazakhstan lands, the first thing which comes to our minds is heroic defence of Otrar, there is a lot of written information and even feature film about Otrar. Nevertheless, battles took place not only in the environs of this city, but unfortunately there is not much information about other battles. Reference: At the time of Genghis khan’s troops’ invasion, there were several states in the territory of modern Kazakhstan: Cuman-Kipchak confederation in northern steppes, the state of Turk-Karluk (under Kara-Khitan Khanate) in northern part of Semirechye, Kangly located in the area of Talas and Chu, also there were Kara-Khitans’s states and Naymans who invaded a part of their territory. Test of strength For the first time Mongols appeared in Semirechye in 1211 under command of Khubilay-noyan.