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Tribal alliances and early states on the territory of Kazakhstan

In the second half of the 8th century, Oguzes lost war with Karluks for the Turgesh heritage forcing them to leave the territory Zhetisu and go to the foothills and the valley of the River Chu.
The work of Gardizi, Persian historian lived in 11th century, is the only one source that transferred the legend about the origin of Kimaks.
According to Mahmud Kashgari (9th century), Oguzes were divided into two large fraternities: Buzuks and Uchuks, comprised of 12 tribes.
Khan was the supreme ruler of the Kypchak state. The power was transmitted from generation to generation and belonged to the Yelborili dynasty.
During the reign of Ibrahim ibn Nasser, Karakhanids were divided into two independent Khanates — Eastern and Western.
Internal wars, social contradictions of the second half of the 10th century had their impact on weakening powerful Samanids. The peak of crisis was during the reign of Nukh ibn Mansur (977-999).
The nobility of the ancient Turks was characterized by the following gradation: Shad, Yabgu (Ulug Shad), Kichig Kagan, Ulug Kagan.
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