«We need to look into the past in order to understand the present and foresee the future».
N. Nazarbayev
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Kazakhstan in Mongol era

Formation of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century had a tremendous impact on the historical destiny of the peoples and countries of Central and Middle Asia, Kazakhstan and Eastern Europe.
The Golden Horde was a multinational state. It included many tribes and ethnic groups differ in the socio-economic development, specific culture and customs.
At the end of 12th - early 13th centuries the political situation in the steppes of Central Asia and Kazakhstan was represented by the growing struggle between the rulers of the tribal alliances.