Kazakh Khanate – 550th anniversary

Prominent figures

Aryngazy

ARYNGAZY Abulgaziyev (reigned in 1816-1821), statesman, sultan, khan. Great-grandson of Batyr Sultan, grand-nephew of Abilkhair Khan.

ARYNGAZY Abulgaziyev (reigned in 1816-1821), statesman, sultan, khan. Great-grandson of Batyr Sultan, grand-nephew of Abilkhair Khan (Batyr — Kaiyp — Abilgazy — Aryngazy). Nowadays Aryngazy’s descendants live in Russia (in Moscow).

In April 1816 after Karatay’s leaving the political arena sultans and governors of clans of the Junior Zhuz elected Aryngazy as khan.

From the beginning of his rule he had faced the continuous aggression of Khiva and Kokand. In 1816 Khiva Khan Mukhamed-Rakhim attacked Kazakh auls (villages); in 1814 Kokand army occupied Turkestan and in 1817 constructed their fortress in the Ak-Meshit hole.

In 1818 Mukhamed-Rakhim appointed Aryngazy’s uncle Sergazy to be a khan of the Syrdariya region. Sergazy’s son Manenbay Sultan began making attacks on auls subordinate to Aryngazy.

Beginning from 1819 Khiva’s aggression against Abylgazy increased. Khiva’s tax collectors arrived to the Syrdariya region and declared that the local Kazakhs were the subjects of Manenbay and Khiva as well so they were obliged to pay taxes. Aryngazy strongly opposed such actions and ordered to arrest the collectors and to send them to Orenburg.

In response, in 1829 Mukhamed-Rakhim Khan attacked and ruined Aryngazy’s pastures. More than 300 people were killed and above 1000 were captured. Arangazy’s family was captivated as well. Aryngazy’s brother was killed.

In turn, Aryngazy’s armed forces attacked Shirgazy’s auls. Approved by Tsarist Government authority of Shirgazy Khan in the Caspian steppes became nominal.

The fought against Khiva Khanate, the intention to stop internal conflicts in Zhuz increased Aryngazy’s popularity and his influence on the Kazakhs from the Western lands of the Middle Zhuz as well as that part of communities directly subordinate to Shirgazy Khan.

The rise of Aryngazy’s authority in the steppe seriously warned both the Tsarist Government and Khiva’s Khan. The Tsarist Government ordered Orenburg’s Governor to support Shirazy Khan by all measures. Khiva’s Khan started appointing his proteges as khans in the Syrdariya region with the aim to weaken Aryngazy.

During his rule Aryngazy initiated several reforms in the sphere of state management. He limited the power of rulers of clans and introduced a special institute — zhasauls, local representatives of khan.

He also changed the judicial system. Besides the traditional court of biys he introduced the court of kaziys based on the sharia norms.

He introduced the concept of the state crime into the criminal law and carried out the death penalty. Before that, such sentence could be handed down only by the court of biys.

He regulated tax collection and introduced special taxes to support zhasauls and kaziys.

At the time of Aryngazy the Tarkhan system (tax-exemptions for the contribution in development of state) was widely used.

Aryngazy’s reforms stopped inter-clan conflicts and contributed in centralization of Khan’s power.

The Tsarist Government decided to remove Aryngazy from the steppe. He was invited to St. Petersburg and then deported to Kaluga.

In 1833 Aryngazy died.

He was known as an author of kuis (Kazakh traditional instrumental pieces). Kui "Aryngazy" has survived [1].

References:
1. Istoriya Kazakhskoy SSR s drevneyshikh vremen do nashikh dney. 3rd edition. Almaty, 2011. pp. 293-295
2. Kazakhstan. Natsionalnaya entsiklopediya. Ed. B. G. Ayagan. Almaty: Chief Editorial Board of the "Kazakh Encyclopedia", 2004. p. 265
3. Kuzembaiuly A., Abil Ye. A. Istoriya Kazakhstana. University textbook. 7th edition. St. Petersburg: Solart, 2004. pp. 185-187

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[1] Vyatkin M. P. Syrym Batyr. Alma-Ata, 1951

  • First name
  • Aryngazy

  • Line of activity/Occupation
  • Governors, khans, sultans

  • Birthday
  • 1783

  • Deathday
  • 1833