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The origin of Alash-orda formation

14 September 2016
The origin of Alash-orda formation
Dzuchi-khan (Zhoshy), Genghis Khan’s eldest son was the author of new autonomous state formation ‘Alash-orda’.

It was not by coincidence, as no one else deeply studied the essence of the philosophical teachings of his father, as it was done by Dzuchi. Kazakh people call him ‘Alash-khan’ for reason. Dzuchi received that second name during his lifetime. ‘Alash’ is the colorfulness, the unity of color components of white light, its spectrum, colors of the rainbow. Europeans see seven colors in the rainbow, distinguishing blue and pale-blue. On the contrary, the nomads did not distinguish blue and pale-blue colors, they called both colors as ‘kok’. Distinction of blue and pale-blue had no fundamental importance for the steppe nomads. 

White color was associated with sainthood and justice, blue with nobility, high social status, yellow with wealth, black with hereditary rights for the territory, ‘earthliness’ and daily physical labor as well.

 In 1206, Genghis Khan divided his empire into three hordes or three autonomous military public formations. However, he made some significant rejections from traditions in color allocation to different hordes. That feature attracted Dzuchi’s attention. 

Since the time of the Huns, the main juridical tribe ‘Ush-zhuz-bu’ (‘tszyu-bu’ in Chinese and ‘syuy-bu’ in ancient Chinese chronicles) was called ‘white tribe’. Genghis Khan called that tribe Uisin by its leader’s name and led in the membership of the Blue Horde. After elders’ recognition of the tribe leader Uisyn as Supreme biy of all the empire, Maiky-biy became the tribe leader of Uisyn, who also commanded the left wing of Dzuchi’s troop.

 In general, the tribe classification on hordes was following. Tribes ‘Oirat’, ‘Taishi-ut’ and ‘Buryat’ were included in the membership of Native Horde. The tribes ‘Uisyn’, ‘Kunan’, ‘Kypshak’, ‘Konytrat’, ‘Kerey’, ‘Naiman’, ‘Uak’, ‘Alimuly’, ‘Baiuly’, ‘Zhetyru’ and ‘Mangyt’ were included in Blue Horde. None of other sons of the Kagan did not make efforts turn father’s teachings into reality, as Dzuchi did for that. 

 Genghis Khan knew about it and highly appreciated his eldest son. The following legend shows the degree of assessment of Dzuchi’s personality. 

 At the beginning of Year of the Pig (February 1227), the news about the tragic death of Dzuchi reached Genghis Khan in the outskirts of Tangut capital Zhongxing, the siege of which was headed personally by kagan. After receiving sad news, Genghis Khan went to his yurta, laid snug on the bed without undressing on his right side. In such pose of detachment from the outside world, he spent 10 days without taking food and ignoring the presence of any, who dared to enter the yurta. During all that time, he only touched a drop of kumys (mare’s milk) put considerately by his caring younger wife Es-ui, Tatar by tribal affiliation (the duty of his younger spouse included following him in long treks). 

 His first wife Borte, Dzuchi’s mother came to Genghis Khan’s headquarters on the eleventh day. After that, Genghis Khan got out of bed. He hugged Borte and said: ‘You are like matron, that lost her son who was a real hero. I, like a matron, lost my son, who was a real hero’. After those words of her husband, Borte felt the immeasurable grief he suffered. His longing for a son, who died after three years apart and did not meet his father was comparable maternal grief. As it has always happened before, she managed to calm her husband and support him. Borte persuaded her husband rally his strength and go to Dzuchi’s horde to make honorable funeral feast (at that time, the memorial service for the heroes was made on the hundredth day after the burial). 

 The philosophical music composition (‘kui’) ‘Aksak kulan’ (‘Lame foal’) tells the story of Dzuchi’s death. This folk story states the following, Dzuchi was an outstanding mergen (the most straight shooter) among hunters. Genghis Khan always charged Dzuchi to determine the time and place when he was going hunting and lead the entire organizational part as well. There was no case of people’s death during the hunting organized by Dzuchi. Dzuchi himself killed animals with one shot only. He never shot twice. 

 Used material: 

 М.-Kh.Suleimanov. Genghis Khan’s era in the history of Kazakh nation (steppe dylogy), 2nd edition, Аlmaty, «Zerger Illyas», 2009

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