Introduction. The International Organization for Assistance to Fighters of the Revolution IOAFR (in Russian МОПР – IOAFR, in abroad it was called Red Aid ) was established at the IV Congress of the Communist International in 1922 as a Comintern structure to provide legal, moral and material assistance to victims of political repression in different countries. Being formally a non-party organization, it was actually used to promote communist ideas, and often under the guise of helping political prisoners, money was transferred to support the communist labor movement abroad (Sokolova, Kallin, Galosheva, 2019: 173).
Methods. When studying migrants in the USSR in the first half of the twentieth century, a systematic approach was used, taking into account a wide range of political, economic, social, national and psychological factors to assess the process and a comprehensive study of the phenomena under consideration. . The research is based on the basic principles of historical knowledge, such as historiography, objectivity and science. An important part of this article is the work of foreign scientists and specialists. The research uses methods of collecting, analyzing and analyzing interstate documents and articles of historians.
Discussion. The source basis of the research work was considered at conferences and dissertations held in Russia. Such sources include the Code of laws of the USSR and scientific collections. Some articles have been published in foreign scientific publications. The results of the study were presented and discussed in the form of reports at the meetings of the Department of World History, the Institute of History and Ethnology named after Ch. Ch. Valikhanov.
The October Revolution of 1917 in the Russian Empire had a huge revolutionizing effect on the whole world and created fundamentally new conditions for the struggle of the working masses for their liberation due to the fact that the first socialist state in the world appeared as an example to follow for other countries. So it was perceived in Russia itself and the world community at that time. As a result of the rise of the workers and national liberation movement in a number of countries, the process of formation of communist, socialist, social-democratic and other parties and movements began. In 1918. Communist and other similar parties were born in Germany, Austria, Hungary, Poland, the Netherlands, Finland, Bulgaria, Argentina, Sweden, Greece and other countries. Later, communist parties and circles were established in Czechoslovakia, Romania, Italy, France, Great Britain, Denmark, Switzerland, the United States, Canada, Brazil, China, Korea, Australia, the Union of South Africa, Latvia and other countries of the world. The Soviet section of the IOAFR was the most popular, was the main source of money. The national sections of countries where communist and other left-wing parties had strong positions were particularly active in protecting victims of repression on the territory of their own and foreign countries. The IOAFR united around itself broad masses of workers, peasants, and employees without distinction of their party affiliation. (Sokolov, Galasheva, 2016: 47).
A special department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs - the Department of Political emigrants was created to address the issues of reception and further service of political emigrants who arrived in the USSR. The division was subordinate to the Secretariat and the presidium of the IOAFR was intended to perform the following tasks:
1 - acceptance arrived in Moscow political refugees, their distribution over the territory of the USSR and the organization of political refugees in the USSR;
2 - providing financial assistance to emigrants for the establishment of the Central Committee of IOAFR rules and types (treatment, the content with the help of local organizations and trade Union bodies in search of work, apartments, cash transfers);
3-drawing up, together with the relevant party organizations and Soviet institutions, plans related to the organization of political and educational work among political emigrants, in order to ensure the possibility of their early involvement in the construction of socialism in the USSR and preparing them for revolutionary work when returning to their homeland;
4-management of the central house of political emigrants and local organizations of political emigrants.
It is proved that the main areas of work of the IOAFR of the USSR were material (mainly monetary), legal, moral support for political prisoners, political emigrants and their families, as well as the families of dead revolutionaries. One of the main components in the activities of the IOAFR of the USSR was the international education of citizens. To this end, much attention was paid to the patronage correspondence of the members of the IOAFR with the fighters of the revolution, especially with prisoners of foreign prisons. IOAFR activists have made a significant contribution to the development of relations between citizens of different countries, helped many needy political prisoners and their families in foreign countries. iopra members actively participated in all socio-economic and socio-political campaigns conducted in the country during the years of industrial industrialization and collectivization of agriculture.European political emigrants who received the status of a political emigrant and a permit to enter and stay in the USSR for a long time before their employment had the following benefits:
a) free living space;
b) free meals;
c) free of charge all necessary clothing for them;
d) cash allowance of 50 rubles per month;
e) medical services (outpatient, hospital and sanitary);
f) Job search assistance;
g) assistance in obtaining the relevant documents for the right to stay in the USSR, as well as assistance in obtaining free of charge from abroad the things left there by them;
h) assistance, in accordance with the established amounts and terms, in transferring foreign currency to families who have remained abroad;
h) assistance in the arrival of their families in the USSR;
i) issuing a certificate for attaching them to the Insnabu. (Manukyan M. N. 2004: 43-44)
These types of assistance were provided to emigrants immediately upon their arrival in the country and for two years. When applying for a job, emigrants received money in the amount of a month's salary, and if they left for other cities, all travel expenses were paid by the IOAFR. If necessary, retraining or acquisition of new qualifications, the Central Committee of IOAFR at the time of reclassification provided politely-welts financial assistance in the amount of the average wage. However, the benefits provided by the Department of Political Emigration were often not met. The first problem faced by those who came to the Soviet Union was getting "free", and, most importantly, permanent housing. So, in one of the reports on the condition of the House political refugees stated: "the EC IOAFR of the USSR until the end of 1929, the annually city Council received 10-12 apartments-to-back arrivals of emigrants.
But since 1930, despite all the statements, requests and personal negotiations with the Moscow City Council and the Moscow City Council, not a single square meter of living space of the Central Committee of the IOAFR of the USSR for political emigrants was received. This circumstance led to the fact that the house-hostel of political emigrants at the disposal of the Central Committee of the IOAFR of the USSR began to overflow with arriving comrades, and now the situation in this house is such that it is rarely possible to have the necessary cubature for newly arriving comrades. (Manukyan M. N. 2004: 46)
In addition to the problems associated with the lack of funding for the construction of additional premises, difficulties in providing living space were also associated with the fact that many emigrants did not want to leave the capital and tried to find work in Moscow, which few were able to do. With the overpopulation of the house of political emigrants, the status and purpose of this institution was somewhat changed. In fact, the functioning of the house met in the following way: "If all the comrades: personal pensioners, multi-family and single, living in a hostel for a few years would be out of the house political refugees evicted (providing them with housing), the house of emigrants could be turned into a real holiday home where newly arrived comrades to their registration and employment, would get real peace and relaxation. It is also necessary and one that the relevant parties-nye mission Ikki would the EC IOAFR of the USSR assistance in the implementation of decisions of CLK EC IOAFR (for example, in the attitude when by order of the CLK, a particular friend needs to travel from Moscow to work).".
Quite significant work was also carried out to help "children of foreign revolutionaries-victims of the white Terror and fascism." In June 1933, the first international children's home named after comrad Stasova was opened in Ivanovo city. 160 children of foreign revolutionaries were brought up in this house.
With the increase in the flow of political emigrants to the country with their families, it became necessary to build a second international children's home. In 1935, not far from Moscow, the Central Committee of the IOAFR of the USSR built the second inter-national children's home, designed for 130 children. Children of political emigrants were distributed and were sent to orphanages by IOAFR. When the necessary paperwork was completed, the children were placed in homes without delay. At the same time in orphanages was directed not only orphans "foreign friends", and often sent to children whose parents did not have the opportunity to educate them, and the reasons for this could be different.
And yet, the department of political emigrants of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR was not ready to accept such a large flow of political emigrants. Many tasks of the department, in particular, such as providing living space, assistance in finding work, assistance in the arrival of their families in the USSR were difficult to accomplish, and sometimes were not fulfilled, due to lack of finances, lack of living space for arriving political emigrants. In addition, the members of the IOAFR has made a significant contribution to the development of civil society in the Soviet Union. A retrospective review of the history of the formation of the International Organization for Assistance to the Fighters of the Revolution (IOAFR) shows that often in the shadow of history are events and facts that at one time had a significant impact on the lives of individual citizens and society as a whole in most countries of the world (Manukyan M. N. 2004: 49).
To understand the difficulties and problems faced by political emigrants during the evacuation, it is necessary to refer to archival materials that will provide some clarity in the study of the issue. Documents that shed light on this topic are contained in the Fund 708 of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan. In this study, two cases were used: "The report of the Central Committee of the IOAFR on the work among political emigrants evacuated to the KazSSR, correspondence with the regional committees of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan on this issue; list of political emigrants evacuated to the KazSSR» (PA RK. F. 708. In. 6. C.524) and "Memos, report of the Central Committee of the IOAFR of the Kazakh SSR and correspondence with the regional party committees on the work of the IOAFR in wartime conditions, labor and material and household structure of political emigrants" (PA RK. F. 708. In. 6. C. 525).
According to Chairman of the Central Committee of IOAFR of the Kazakh SSR A. Satonina "On the situation of political refugees in the Kazakh SSR", "the first emigrants began to arrive in Kazakhstan in July–August 1941, most in a single order and only occasionally families and groups. Political emigrants arrived from Moscow, Poland, Western Ukraine and Belarus, and then Romania" (PA RK. F. 708. In. 6. C. 525 L 5).
From archival documents it follows that "according to the Central Committee of the IOAFR of the USSR of January 22, 1942, there were 81 political emigrants in Kazakhstan, but from this list only 51 people actually lived, some were in the Kyrgyz SSR, and the rest were unknown where. At the same time, many political emigrants did not live where it is indicated in the list" (PA RK. F. 708. In. 6. C. 525 L 26). At the beginning of 1942, "more than 200 political emigrants were settled in Kazakhstan, of which 85 people passed through the Central Committee of the IOAFR of the Kazakh SSR" (PA RK. F. 708. In. 6. C. 525 L 25). Most of the political emigrants were not registered by the authorities, as they were sent to various regions of the republic, bypassing the Central Committee and regional committees of the IOAFR, along with other streams of evacuees. The report also noted that " out of 216 people, there were 57 Germans, 42 Poles and Jews, despite the fact that many Poles posed for some reason as Jews, Sudeten Germans 37 people, Spaniards 26 people, Hungarians 14 people, Czechs 4 people, Bulgarians 2 people, other nationalities (Ukrainians, Romanians) and unexplained 34 people. Men-141, women-75, members of fraternal communist parties 122, non-party 48 and unclear 46 people" (PA RK. F. 708. In. 6. C. 525. L. 6-10, 50 L 25).
In the report of the responsible instructor of the Central Committee of the IOAFR of the Kazakh SSR for political emigration, S. Weiss, dated November 30, 1942, on the survey of the situation of Spanish political emigrants sent to the Tekeli lead-zinc combine of the Taldy-Kurgan district, 100 Spanish political emigrants are already mentioned (PA RK. F. 708. In. 6. C. 525. L. 6-10, 50. L. 6).
The arrival of the evacuees in the republic continued, and by July 1943 "there were already 744 political emigrants living in Kazakhstan, among them 248 members of the Communist Party and 12 Komsomol members" (PA RK. F. 708. In. 6. C. 525. L. 6-10, 50 L 50).
To date, there are no exact data on the number of political emigrants evacuated to Kazakhstan. The question of their total number is still one of the poorly studied pages in the historiography of the war.
Large-scale and unorganized evacuation of the population caused many problems, primarily with the housing and household structure. According to the IOAFR of the Kazakh SSR, "despite the special instructions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan to the regional and district Party committees about caring and attentive attitude to political emigrants, the Soviet party organizations in the field did not pay the necessary attention to them, which is why many of them were in very difficult material and living conditions: lack of housing, lack of clothing, shoes, food" (PA RK. F. 708. In. 6. C. 525 L 10)
Also, a common disturbing fact when placing political emigrants was "the unwillingness of some leaders to hire political emigrants, stagnation and hostility towards them on the part of the population itself (mainly collective farmers), who did not distinguish political emigrants from evacuated people in general." In addition, discontent with political emigrants arose on the basis of the existing housing and food difficulties.
A sharp increase in the population could not but affect the life of cities and towns in Kazakhstan: social problems have worsened (lack of housing, rising prices of food), construction of social infrastructure has slowed down. Republican authorities, trade unions and other public organizations provided assistance to evacuees in improving their material and living conditions, and took care of their health. But due to objective reasons, they did not always cope with the flow of evacuees and refugees arriving in Kazakhstan every day (Chilikova E. V. 2019: 594). Nevertheless, the local authorities did everything possible for their timely placement and arrangement. Kazakhstan has become for them not only a temporary refuge in wartime conditions, but also a second homeland.
The ECIOAFR of the USSR continuously sent a letter to the ECIOAFR of the Union and Autonomous republics with a view to adopting political refugees, the organization of cultural-mass work. Here is one of these letters addressed to the Central Committee of the IOAFR of the Kazakh SSR under number 141 dated March 31, 1942: "The day of May 1 is approaching — the day of international proletarian solidarity. We need a constant and sensitive approach to political emigrants, especially now. In practice, comrades should feel a warm comradeship towards them. You need in preparation for May 1, to conduct a survey of the conditions in which they live and work, the emigrants and their families, and take all your dependent measures to the maximum to help his comrades in all their needs: in employment, improving consumer services, supply at least a minimum of food, to seek for companions those who are in particular need, shoes, underwear and clothes. In the dormitories where the comrades live, it is necessary to restore the appropriate order by May 1, it is necessary to help them in the publication of wall newspapers by May 1, patients should be arranged in medical institutions. Issue one-time allowances to needy comrades and do not delay the issuance of a permanent allowance. Ensure that pensioners receive their pension in a timely manner. It is necessary to agree with local organizations to mark the day of May 1 with the organization of evenings for political emigrants who are registered with us and receive financial assistance from us. At these evenings, it is necessary to create a comradely atmosphere, so that the comrades feel like in their comradely native family. After the report on the day of May 1, arrange with the political emigrants to make a speech about their memories of the day of May 1 in the conditions of capitalist countries. It would be desirable that after the solemn part, tea and sandwiches were organized, and children of political emigrants would need to prepare gifts and sweets. The Central Committee of the IOAFR of the USSR hopes that you will take into account the importance of holding all these events and, with the help of party and Soviet organizations, will take all measures to make the comrades feel that. to them, the fighters of the revolution, who are drinking in the USSR, proletarian solidarity is carried out in full. The Central Committee of the IOAFR of the USSR invites you to report how the day of May 1 was spent with political emigrants according to the above-mentioned events. " (http://bibliotekar.kz/)
In the 1930s, at the initiative of the Central Committee of the IOAFR in the Moscow region were built: Clara Zetkin House of Veterans of the Revolution, 2nd children's home for Spanish children, home for political emigrants. The International Club of Political Emigrants named after V. M. Zagorsky functioned in Moscow. For the construction and improvement of these facilities, cleannings were organized throughout the country, and the earned funds were sent to Moscow, to the construction fund. For the same purpose, except membership fees, collected so-called "IOAFR fund". The secretariat of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Central Committee of the IOAFR set the task-by March 18, 1935 increase the number of members of the IOAFR in the USSR to 15 million people, the number of Young friends of the IOAFR - up to 5 million people. Returning to the topic of the functioning of the International House it should be noted that the country of the Soviets became a second homeland for the orphaned children of revolutionaries. The house was comfortable, spacious, and comfortable to live in. There were cozy bright bedrooms, classrooms and offices for school classes, special carpentry and locksmith workshops, a library, a sports hall with showers, a reading room, an auditorium with a sound film installation, a special linguistic room for language classes. In the building there was a well-equipped dining room, where children received a hearty and delicious meal. In the 1933/34 academic year, children of 27 nationalities lived in the boarding house: Japanese, Chinese, Bulgarians, Germans, Greeks, Poles, Italians, Hungarians, Romanians, Spaniards, Jews, Arabs, Indians, Africans, etc. This organization was created at the suggestion of the Soviet Government in 1922 (Sokolova, Kallin, Galosheva, 2019: 175). The following year, the Soviet Section of the IOAFR was formed. The organization was engaged in providing moral, material, political and legal assistance to victims of the class struggle in all countries of the world. In the period preceding the formation of the PRI, all matters related to the provision of political emigrants were handled by the AUCEC. The functions of the special Commissioner included: reception of political emigrants, providing them with housing, money, food and clothing allowances, as well as employment. In 1922-1923, the Central Executive Committee spent up to 500 thousand rubles annually to help political emigrants. At the end of 1922, due to the increase in the influx of political emigrants, it became necessary to create a broader organization that would deal with the affairs of political emigration. In early January 1923 on the proposal of the Central Executive Committee was established by the Society of assistance to political refugees in the USSR, which called on the workers of the USSR to provide assistance to the emigrants arriving in the Soviet country, money, necessities, provision of work. During the period from February to July 1923, the Society provided housing for more than 400 political emigrants and their families, sent 165 people for treatment, and provided employment for about 500 political emigrants. In December 1923, the Company was liquidated, and its functions were completely transferred to the IOAFR. An important factor in the socio-cultural adaptation of political emigrants was that special “Houses of political Emigrants” were created for them. In 1925, in Moscow, Leningrad, Odessa, Minsk and Kharkiv, the Soviet section of the IOAFR opened special houses for the reception and accommodation of political emigrants. By the beginning of 1926, nine Houses of political emigrants were already functioning on the territory of the USSR, in which foreigners lived for the first two months after their arrival in the Soviet Union. It should be noted that emigrant dormitories were not just a place of accommodation for foreigners, but served as a kind of cultural centers. For example, the House of Political Emigrants in Moscow conducted a lot of political and educational work, guided tours were conducted for foreigners, and short-term courses on learning the Russian language were operated. In 1926-1927, 253 revolutionaries from 12 European countries lived in the House of Political Emigrants in Leningrad, which was also organized at the expense of the IOAFR. In the conditions of mass unemployment, the employment of political emigrants was a serious problem. To this end, in 1925 under the Department of the Central Committee of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR for political emigration, a special commission was created that dealt with the employment of foreigners and the provision of medical care to them. Due to their privileged social status, political emigrants were usually provided with jobs in the first place. Only for the period from July 1924 to March 1927, the Central Committee of the IOAFR was able to employ 5,900 political emigrants. The presence of serious adaptive attitudes in a significant part of political emigrants allowed them to independently solve many social problems, including employment issues. (Ivanova O. V. 2006: 2)
IOAFR members conducted a number of international campaigns against German and Italian fascism, campaigns for the release of political prisoners and other events. The atmosphere of distrust and suspicion on the part of the Soviet leadership towards the foreigners who arrived, which peaked in 1937-1938, led to the fact that many refugees from Nazi Germany were increasingly refused admission to the USSR as political emigrants. EC IOAFR extremely toughened the thorough screening of applicants for this status. Special control was applied to Germans with a dubious party past for the members of the commission, to whom the image of an enemy and a spy was automatically transferred. The epidemic of espionage mania that has engulfed the country has also affected organizations associated with the formation and implementation of emigration policies. Only persons known to the ICCI and who entered the USSR at the request of its or Soviet authorities were allowed to pass through the EX of the IOPR, which granted the status of a political emigrant. Changes in the course of immigration policy certainly led to changes in the content of the organization's work. On May 25, 1936, G. Dimitrov sent to the Political bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU Comrade. To Yezhov the following proposals for the reorganization of the IOAFR: "In accordance with the decision of the VII Congress of the Comintern, we consider it appropriate to restructure the work of the IOAFR in the direction of:
a) turning the IOAFR into a broad public organization with the election of an international conference convened abroad by the leadership of popular anti-fascist figures;
b) shifting the center of gravity of the work of the IOAFR leadership to capitalist countries. " (Sokolova, Kallin, Galosheva, 2019: 177)
Nevertheless, it should be borne in mind that the task set by the leadership of the Central Committee of the IOAFR of the USSR, to bring the number of members of the IOAFR in the Soviet country to 15 million people, and the number of the Young members of IOAFR to 5 million people by 1935, was not fulfilled. Despite the successes achieved in the reconstruction of society in a new way, not everything was as successful as it seemed from the outside. Negative processes were observed in the development of the state and society: unjustified political repression, the transformation of the command and administrative system into a totalitarian one, and restrictions on the rights and freedoms of citizens. All this led to the fact that the image of the USSR as a state of workers and peasants began to lose its appeal in the eyes of the world community. Gradually, the mood of the IOAFR activists began to change, there was a drop in interest in the movement, disbelief in the ideas of the socialist revolution. (Sokolova, Kallin, Galosheva, 2019: 177)
Since 1939, the leadership of the Comintern has become an obedient tool of the Political bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Stalin personally and fully supports all internal and foreign policy actions of the Kremlin. The political line of the Comintern sounded by the beginning of 1939 as follows: the instigator of war is German fascism, the task of which was to rally all peace-loving forces around the Soviet Union.
The signing of the Soviet-German non-aggression pact turned out to be a tragedy for political emigrants. The secret agreement to the pact allowed for the transfer of political emigrants to the German authorities. By the decision of the Special Council, many political emigrants were recognized as "undesirable foreigners" and handed over to the German authorities.
The policy of "purges", the Soviet-German union influenced the state of the German foreign colony. The mass arrests of Germans by the PCIA and the lack of information about them and their families led to the complete disorganization of the personnel department of the German section of the IKKI. (Manukyan M. N. 2004: 96)
In conclusion, the broad powers of the IOAFR can be judged even by the fact that until 1924 only it gave permission to enter the USSR. In ten years, 6,935 political emigrants arrived in the USSR, most of them were granted political asylum. They received assistance in the amount of 5,000,100 rubles. 11 The International Organization for Assistance to the Fighters of the Revolution spread its influence not only within the USSR, but also in many other countries of the world. Until August 1930, the IOAFR provided political emigrants in capitalist countries with monetary assistance in the amount of more than 2 800 800 rubles. For 13 years of activity of the IOAFR, funds were collected in the amount of 74 million rubles, including only during 1934 and nine months of 1935, 38.5 million rubles were collected. For the maintenance of political emigrants in the USSR, 3,326,268 rubles were spent (assistance was provided to 8,983 foreign citizens), for the first nine months of 1935-2,420,000 rubles. Today, the efforts of many prominent public figures and ordinary citizens of various countries in helping convicted revolutionaries and their families in difficult times of rebuilding the national economy after the devastating First World War have been forgotten. This topic remains insufficiently studied in modern science, so an objective, comprehensive analysis of the basic principles and directions of the life of the named charitable organization becomes an urgent research task. For modern Russia, which is pursuing an active foreign policy course based on the patriotic education of the young generation and society as a whole, the study of the experience of international education of citizens in the Soviet state should become one of the priority areas of historical science.
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ЕУРОПАЛЫҚ ЭМИГРАНТТАРҒА ҚАТЫСТЫ РЕВОЛЮЦИЯ КҮРЕСКЕРЛЕРІНЕ КӨМЕК КӨРСЕТУДІҢ ХАЛЫҚАРАЛЫҚ ҰЙЫМЫНЫҢ ҚЫЗМЕТІ
¹PhD докторант. Ш.Ш. Уалиханов ат. Тарих және этнология институтының КҒҚ
Аңдатпа. ХРКККҰ халықаралық қайырымдылық ұйымы (басқаша атауы Қызыл көмек) 1922 жылдың аяғында Коммунистік Интернационалдың 4-ші конгресінің шешімімен "жұмысшыларды ақ террордан қорғау және оның құрбандарына көмектесу" мақсатында қолданыстағы Қызыл Крестке коммунистік аналог ретінде құрылды. Партиядан тыс ұйым бола отырып және әлемнің ондаған елдерінде филиалдары (секциялары) бола отырып, ол саяси тұтқындарға, саяси эмигранттарға және олардың отбасыларына, сондай-ақ қайтыс болған революционерлердің отбасыларына материалдық (негізінен ақшалай), заңды, моральдық қолдау көрсетті. ХРКККҰ-дің кең өкілеттіктерін 1924 жылға дейін тек КСРО-ға кіруге рұқсат бергенімен де бағалауға болады. Он жыл ішінде КСРО-ға 6 935 саяси эмигрант келді, олардың көпшілігі саяси баспана алды. Олар 5 000 100 рубль көлемінде көмек алды. Революцияның күрескерлеріне көмек көрсететін халықаралық ұйым өзінің ықпалын КСРО-да ғана емес, әлемнің көптеген елдерінде де кеңейтті.
Түйін сөздер: КСРО, ХРКККҰ, Саяси эмигранттар, революционерлер, көмек, өмір.
ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТЬ МЕЖДУНАРОДНОЙ ОРГАНИЗАЦИИ ПОМОЩИ БОРЦАМ РЕВОЛЮЦИИ ПО ОТНОШЕНИЮ ЕВРОПЕЙСКИМ ЭМИГРАНТАМ
¹PhD докторант. Младший научный сотрудник Института истории и этнологии им.Ч. Ч. Валиханова.
Аннотация.Международная благотворительная организация МОПР (Красная Помощь) была создана в конце 1922 г. по решению 4-го конгресса Коммунистического Интернационала в качестве коммунистического аналога действующему Красному Кресту в целях «защиты трудящихся от белого террора и помощи его жертвам». Являясь организацией внепартийной и имея отделения (секции) в десятках стран мира, она оказывала материальную (в основном денежную), юридическую, моральную поддержку политическим заключенным, политическим эмигрантам и их семьям, а также семьям погибших революционеров. О широких полномочиях МОПР можно судить даже по тому, что до 1924 года только она давала разрешение на въезд в СССР. За десять лет в СССР прибыло 6 935 политэмигрантов, большинство из которых получили политическое убежище. Они получили помощь в размере 5 000 100 рублей. Международная организация помощи борцам революции распространила свое влияние не только в пределах СССР, но и во многих других странах мира.Ключевые слова: СССР, МОПР, политэмигранты, революционеры, помощь, быт.